After making their passage across the ocean in thirteen transports and one sloop-of-war (the Sphinx), Governor Colonel Edward Cornwallis (age thirty-six) and 2,547 volunteer settlers and soldiers arrived at what later became Halifax – then called Chebuctou by the French and K’jipuktuk by the Mi’kmaq, meaning ‘biggest harbour’. The purpose of the Halifax was to establish a new state-sponsored settlement in British North America. The settlers included 1,174 families (with 440 children), many who were from released army and navy personnel. The contingent also included active soldiers to protect the settlement and 420 “servants.” The date of arrival on the June 21st date was based on the Julian Calendar — it would be July 2nd in our modern Gregorian calendar.(The Julian calendar changed to Gregorian on January 1, 1752.). Upon establishing the settlement on the west side of the harbour, Cornwallis named it Halifax, after the Earl of Halifax, George Montagu-Dunk, who was the president of the Board of Trade and Plantations, the body that had proposed the settlement, which had earlier been encouraged by New England Massachusetts Governor William Shirley, who saw it as a British priority in providing security to the northern colonies as a counterbalance to Louisbourg. Cornwallis reaffirmed British adherence to the 1726 Peace and Friendship Treaty agreement (ratified at Annapolis Royal in 1726) in a meeting with Maliseet and Mi’kmaq chiefs in August. Not all accepted the British settlement – many saw it as an occupation of their territory. In September a number of Mi’kmaq Chiefs expressed their opposition to the Halifax settlement in a letter to Cornwallis and warned that it could be attacked as a violation of the treaty agreements. (Painting: Colonel Edward Cornwallis of the 24th Regiment of Foot, by Joshua Reynolds, 1756.)