Pierre Dugua, sieur de Mons (de Monts), with Baron de Poutrincourt, Samuel de Champlain and their crew, sailed into what is now known as the Annapolis Basin. They later crossed the Baie Françoise (Bay of Fundy) and settled for their first winter on the island of St. Croix (located on what became the border between New Brunswick and eastern Maine). After much hardship, in the spring of 1605 they moved the settlement to Port Royale (now Annapolis Royal), and built and established the Habitation, the first permanent French settlement in what later became known as Canada. They established a close friendship with Mi’kmaq Grand Chief Membertou (Kjisaqmaw Maupeltuk) and the Mi’kmaq people. It is believed that the first black presence in Canada, in the person of Mathieu Da Costa (De Coste), had also accompanied them as an interpreter with the Indigenous peoples. As for Champlain, he had first sailed to North America with the French merchant Francois Gravé Du Pont, arriving at Tadoussac, Quebec, on March 15, 1603. He later returned to France and published an account of his journey titled Des Sauvages, ou, voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouage, fait en la France nouvelle, l’an mil six cens trois (Concerning the Savages: or, Travels of Samuel Champlain of
Brouages, made in New France in the year 1603).
(Image: The title page of Champlain’s book.